PALS Megacode 5 Out-of-HospitalHurry, don’t let time run out!Sorry, time is up!0 Hours 0 mins 0 secsStep 1 of 1010%You are a healthcare provider working on an ALS ambulance. You are dispatched to the home of an 11-year-old male who has been experiencing increased respiratory effort. You are advised that the patient has a history of asthma and recurrent pulmonary infections. They are currently on ciclesonide INH twice daily and albuterol INH as needed. Albuterol x2 was used 20 minutes ago with no signs of improvement. Your response time to the scene is 3 minutes. Upon arrival, you observe the patient sitting at the house entrance, leaning forward in the tripod position. Both parents are present. A rapid initial impression (ABCs) reveals the following:Appearance: Alert but unable to speak, focused on breathingBreathing: Increased effort, accessory muscle use, wheezingCirculation: Pale skin1. The information provided by dispatch combined with an initial impression reveal that the patient is experiencing an acute asthmatic exacerbation. How would you classify the intensity of the exacerbation?* A secondary assessment is needed to classify the degree to severity Severe Moderate Mild 2. What type and severity of respiratory emergency is occurring in the given scenario?* Lower airway obstruction leading to respiratory distress Upper airway obstruction leading to respiratory failure Disordered control of breathing leading to respiratory distress Lung tissue disease leading to respiratory failure You instruct your ALS partner to support the airway and begin providing oxygen while you evaluate the patient.3. What is the most appropriate oxygenation therapy option in the given scenario?* Humidified oxygen via NC Regular oxygen via NRB Humidified oxygen using BiPAP Regular oxygen via NC Your ALS partner is supporting the airway and has started providing regular oxygen via NRB. The patient is attached to a cardiac monitor and pulse oximeter. You conduct a rapid, hands-on primary assessment using the ABCDE approach which reveals the following:Airway: Patent, moderate retractions, accessory muscle useBreathing: RR 47/min SpO2 85%, labored, prolonged expirations, wheezingCirculation: HR 135/min, BP 110/78, normal CRTDisability: Moving extremities x4, irritableExposure: Pale, afebrile, no rashes4. A primary assessment reveals persistent respiratory distress. Oxygen is being provided via NRB with no improvement. What are your next actions?* Administer nebulized epinephrine Administer nebulized albuterol + ipratropium Consider non-invasive ventilatory support with PEEP Establish IV access Nebulized albuterol + ipratropium is administered with no improvement. Peripheral IV access is established.5. What are your next actions?* Administer nebulized epinephrine Consider non-invasive ventilatory support with PEEP Administer IV corticosteroids Administer IV terbutaline IV corticosteroids are administered, and oxygen via NRB is continued with a second nebulizer treatment of albuterol + ipratropium. A repeated primary assessment reveals persistent subcostal retractions, accessory muscle use, labored breathing, and audible wheezing. The patient remains pale and irritable. Oxygenation improves from 85% to 91%. IV access is maintained.6. What are your next actions?* Administer IV terbutaline Sedate and intubate Attempt non-invasive ventilation via BiPAP Continue providing oxygen via NRB You have attempted non-invasive ventilation via BiPAP for five minutes followed by a third nebulized treatment of albuterol + ipratropium. During the treatment, a repeated primary assessment shows an improvement in subcostal retractions, accessory muscle use, labored breathing, and wheezing. The patient remains pale and irritable. Vitals improve to HR 125, BP 101/46, RR 35. Oxygenation improves from 91% to 95%. The patient is now being transported to the hospital.7. What are your next actions?* Continue providing oxygen via NRB Administer IV terbutaline Continue BiPAP and titrate FiO2 to maintain SpO2 > 94% Sedate and intubate You continue BiPAP and titrate FiO2 to maintain an SpO2 above the hypoxia threshold of 94%. Continued stabilization is observed. You have already administered systemic corticosteroids.