Take the free PALS Pretest provided below in order to prepare you for our official PALS online exam. The practice exam consists of 10 multiple-choice questions that are derived from the PALS provider manual and adhere to the latest AHA and ECC guidelines. Correct answers & explanations will be shown once the practice test is submitted.
The head tilt – chin lift lifts soft structures in the mouth away from the back of the throat and may restore patency to a child’s airway.
Cricothyrotomy is the opening of an airway by incision and is considered an extreme measure.
Choking is a common cause of airway obstruction in the pediatric population and foreign body relief techniques may be required to reopen a child’s airway.
Airway adjuncts such as nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal airways may help keep the soft structures of the mouth from occluding the airway of a unconscious child.
The PALS systematic approach initial impression consists of “Consciousness, Breathing, and Color”. Deformity is not included in the PALS systematic approach initial impression.
Eye opening in response to pain, voice, or spontaneously opposed to no eye opening is an assessment in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS).
Verbal response, whether absent, incomprehensible, inappropriate, confused, or appropriate is an assessment of neurologic function and is part of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS).
Motor response in response to painful stimuli or to command is a measure of neurologic function and is part of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS).
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a method of rapidly assessing a person’s level of consciousness, and is neurological. Cardiac output is not part of a neurologic assessment or part of the GCS.
Hypovolemic shock is caused by low volume states which reduce circulatory volume, preload, and afterload.
Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar, and is not considered a type of shock.
Distributive shock is a low volume state caused by fluid leaving the intravascular space and entering the tissue space, called “third spacing” and is a type of shock.
Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart cannot pump adequately to supply the circulatory needs of the body and is considered a type of shock.
Hypoxemia is low oxygen in the blood. Values in children above 95% are considered adequate.
Oxygen saturation values below 94% are considered hypoxemic.
When aspirated, most foreign bodies are large enough to lodge in the upper airway and create an obstruction.
Asthma is bronchospasm of the lower airway and does not commonly result in upper airway obstruction.
Swelling of the airway, such as in severe allergic reactions, can result in upper airway obstruction.
Retropharyngeal abscess can occur due to untreated upper respiratory infections and can result in upper airway obstruction.
Stridor is a high pitched musical noise in the upper airway and is not commonly associated with pneumonia.
Aspiration is the transfer of foreign material into the airway and does not commonly produce the high pitched sounds that characterize stridor.
Stridor is a high pitched, musical sound produced in the upper airway and is characteristic of incomplete upper airway obstructions.
Bronchoconstriction occurs in the lower airway and produces coughing, often associated with asthma and is distinct from stridor, which is a high pitch musical sound produced in the upper airway.
All of the above are organisms commonly associated with community acquired pneumonia.
Dexamethasone is an anti-inflamatory steroid and is a medication used in the treatment of croup.
Nebulized epinephrine is highly effective in the treatment of croup and is considered core therapy.
Heliox is a mixture of helium and oxygen gasses which has shown benefit in the treatment of croup.
All of the above is the correct answer.
Abdominal bloating is commonly caused by increased gas in the gastrointestinal system and is not associated with increased respiratory effort.
Nasal flaring is an important sign of increased respiratory effort.
Chest retractions are caused by increased respiratory effort and an important sign of impending respiratory distress.
Head bobbing or seesaw respirations are a sign of increased respiratory effort in infants.