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ACLS Cases Pulseless Electrical Activity Asystole

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Asystole wave

RULES FOR ASYSTOLE

REGULARITY The rhythm will be a nearly flat line.
RATE There is no rate.
P WAVE There are no P waves present.
PR Interval PRI is unable to be measured due to no P waves being present
QRS There are no QRS complexes present.

regular wave

REVERSIBLE CAUSES

THE H’S
Hypovolemia
Hypoxia
H+ (acidosis)
Hypo
/Hyperkalemia
Hypothermia
THE T’S
Tension
pneumothorax
Tamponade
Toxins
Thrombosis
(coronary)
Hypothermia
  • Always verify a reading of asystole is not equipment failure. Make sure patches make good contact with the patient, all cables are connected, gain is set appropriately, and the power is on.
  • Hypovolemia and hypoxia are easily reversed and the two most common causes of PEA.

 

Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) and asystole are related cardiac rhythms in that they are both life threatening and NOT shockable. Asystole is a flat-line ECG. There may be subtle movement away from baseline (drifting flat-line) but there is no perceptible cardiac electrical activity. Always ensure a reading of asystole is not an user or technical error. Make sure patches have good contact with the patient, leads are connected, gain is set appropriately, and the power is on. Pulseless electrical activity is one of many waveforms by ECG (including sinus rhythm), without a detectable pulse. Pulseless electrical activity may include any pulseless waveform with the exception of VF (VF), VT (VT), or asystole.

Hypovolemia and hypoxia are the two most common causes of PEA. They are also the most easily reversible and should be at the top of any differential diagnosis.

If the patient has return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), proceed to Post-Cardiac Arrest Care. Atropine is no longer recommended in cases of PEA or asystole.

NO ATROPINE DURING PEA OR ASYSTOLE

Although there is no evidence that atropine has a detrimental effect during bradycaradic or asystolic cardiac arrest, routine use of atroprine during PEA or asystole has not been shown to have a therapeutic benefit. Therefore, the AHA has removed atropine from the cardiac arrest guidelines.

STANDARD DOSE EPINEPHRINE IS VASOPRESSOR OF CHOICE

Preliminary research suggested that epinephrine in higher doses may produce improved results in resuscitation. However, research conducted after the 2010 guidelines publication failed to show any benefit over standard dose of 1 mg epinephrine. Likewise, the 2010 AHA guidelines offered an alternative vasopressor, called vasopressin, which could be used instead of or after the first dose of epinephrine. Subsequent research showed that vasopressin offered no benefit over standard dose epinephrine. Without a demonstration of superiority, both high-dose epinephrine and vasopressin have been removed, simplifying the ACLS algorithm.

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